Potassium is a mineral and an electrolyte, which conducts electrical impulses throughout the body. Electrolytes assist in essential body functions. Too little potassium can lead to serious health. Potassium (19 K) has 26 known isotopes from 31 K to 57 K, with the exception of still-unknown 32 K, as well as an unconfirmed report of 59 K. Three of those isotopes occur naturally: the two stable forms 39 K (93.3%) and 41 K (6.7%), and a very long-lived radioisotope 40 K (0.012%). Potassium-39 is normally about 13.5 times more plentiful than potassium-41. The natural radioactivity of potassium is due to beta radiation from the potassium-40 isotope (10 9 years half-life). The disintegration of potassium-40 is used in geological age calculations (see potassium-argon dating). Potassium (K) cations are spontaneously formed upon thermal deposition of low‐coverage K onto an ultrathin CuO monolayer grown on Cu(110) and they were explored by low‐temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and X‐ray photoemission spectroscopy. The formed K cations are highly immobile and thermally stable. 45) Explain, in terms of electrons, why the radius of a potassium atom is larger than the radius of a potassium ion in the ground state. PT A potassium atom has four electron shells and a potassium ion has three electron shells. A potassium atom has one more electron shell than a potassium ion. A K+ ion has one fewer electron than a K atom.
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Potassium (K), chemical element of Group 1 (Ia) of the periodic table, the alkali metalgroup, indispensable for both plant and animal life. Potassium was the first metal to be isolated by electrolysis, by the English chemist Sir Humphry Davy, when he obtained the element (1807) by decomposing molten potassium hydroxide (KOH) with a voltaic battery.
|melting point||63.28 °C (145.90 °F)|
|boiling point||760 °C (1,400 °F)|
|specific gravity||0.862 (at 20 °C, or 68 °F)|
|oxidation states||+1, −1 (rare)|
|electron configuration||2-8-8-1 or 1s22s22p63s23p64s1|
Properties, occurrence, and uses
Potassium metal is soft and white with a silvery lustre, has a low melting point, and is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Potassium imparts a lavender colour to a flame, and its vapour is green. It is the seventh most abundant element in Earth’s crust, constituting 2.6 percent of its mass.
The potassium content of the Dead Sea is estimated at approximately 1.7 percent potassium chloride, and many other salty bodies of water are rich in potassium. The waste liquors from certain saltworks may contain up to 40 grams per litre of potassium chloride and are used as a source of potassium.
Most potassium is present in igneous rocks, shale, and sediment in minerals such as muscovite and orthoclasefeldspar that are insoluble in water; this makes potassium difficult to obtain. As a result, most commercial potassium compounds (often loosely called potash) are obtained via electrolysis from soluble potassium compounds, such as carnallite (KMgCl3∙6H2O), sylvite (potassium chloride, KCl), polyhalite (K2Ca2Mg[SO4]4∙2H2O), and langbeinite (K2Mg2[SO4]3), which are found in ancient lake beds and seabeds.
Potassium is produced by sodium reduction of molten potassium chloride, KCl, at 870 °C (1,600 °F). Molten KCl is continuously fed into a packed distillation column while sodium vapour is passed up through the column. By condensation of the more volatile potassium at the top of the distillation tower, the reaction Na + KCl → K + NaCl is forced to the right. Efforts to devise a scheme for commercial electrolytic production of potassium have been unsuccessful because there are few salt additives that can reduce the melting point of potassium chloride to temperatures where electrolysis is efficient.
There is little commercial demand for potassium metal itself, and most of it is converted by direct combustion in dry air to potassium superoxide, KO2, which is used in respiratory equipment because it liberates oxygen and removes carbon dioxide and water vapour. (The superoxide of potassium is a yellow solid consisting of K+and O2− ions. It also can be formed by oxidation of potassium amalgam with dry air or oxygen.) The metal is also used as an alloy with sodium as a liquid metallic heat-transfer medium. Potassium reacts very vigorously with water, liberating hydrogen (which ignites) and forming a solution of potassium hydroxide, KOH.
Sodium-potassium alloy (NaK) is used to a limited extent as a heat-transfer coolant in some fast-breeder nuclear reactors and experimentally in gas-turbine power plants. The alloy is also used as a catalyst or reducing agent in organic synthesis.
In addition to the alloys of potassium with lithium and sodium, alloys with other alkali metals are known. Complete miscibility exists in the potassium-rubidium and potassium-cesium binary systems. The latter system forms an alloy melting at approximately −38 °C (−36 °F). Modification of the system by the addition of sodium results in a ternary eutectic melting at approximately −78 °C (−108 °F). The composition of this alloy is 3 percent sodium, 24 percent potassium, and 73 percent cesium. Potassium is essentially immiscible with all the alkaline-earth metals, as well as with zinc, aluminum, and cadmium.
Potassium (as K+) is required by all plants and animals. Plants need it for photosynthesis, regulation of osmosis and growth, and enzyme activation. Every animal has a closely maintained potassium level and a relatively fixed potassium-sodium ratio. Potassium is the primary inorganic cation within the living cell, and sodium is the most abundant cation in extracellular fluids. In higher animals, selective complexants for Na+ and K+ act at cellmembranes to provide “active transport.” This active transport transmits electrochemical impulses in nerve and muscle fibres and in balancing the activity of nutrient intake and waste removal from cells. Too little or too much potassium in the body is fatal; however, potassium in the soil ensures the presence of this indispensable element in food.
The potassium content of plants varies considerably, though it is ordinarily in the range of 0.5–2 percent of the dry weight. In humans the ratio of potassium between the cell and plasma is approximately 27:1. The potassium content of muscle tissue is approximately 0.3 percent, whereas that of blood serum is about 0.01–0.02 percent. The dietary requirement for normal growth is approximately 3.3 grams (0.12 ounce) of potassium per day, but the ingestion of more than 20 grams (0.7 ounce) of potassium results in distinct physiological effects. Excess potassium is excreted in the urine, and a significant quantity may be lost during sweating.
Natural potassium consists of three isotopes: potassium-39 (93.26 percent), potassium-41 (6.73 percent), and radioactive potassium-40 (about 0.01 percent); several artificial isotopes have also been prepared. Potassium-39 is normally about 13.5 times more plentiful than potassium-41. The natural radioactivity of potassium is due to beta radiation from the potassium-40 isotope (109 years half-life). The disintegration of potassium-40 is used in geological age calculations (seepotassium-argon dating). Potassium easily loses the single 4selectron, so it normally has an oxidation state of +1 in its compounds, although compounds that contain the anion, K−, can also be made.
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Generic Name: potassium citrate (poe TASS see um SIT rate)
Brand Names: Urocit-K
Paint xp for windows 10. Medically reviewed by Drugs.com. Last updated on April 2, 2021.
What is potassium citrate?
Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.
Potassium citrate is used to treat a kidney stone condition called renal tubular acidosis.
Potassium citrate may also be used for other purposes other than those listed in this medication guide.
WarningsYou should not use potassium citrate if you have kidney failure, a urinary tract infection, uncontrolled diabetes, a peptic ulcer in your stomach, Addison's disease, severe burns or other tissue injury, if you are dehydrated, if you take certain diuretics (water pills), or if you have high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia).
You should not take potassium citrate tablets if you have problems with your esophagus, stomach, or intestines that make it difficult for you to swallow or digest pills.Do not crush, chew, break, or suck on an extended-release tablet. Swallow the pill whole. Breaking or crushing the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Sucking on a potassium tablet can irritate your mouth or throat. Avoid lying down for at least 30 minutes after you take this medication. Take potassium citrate with a meal or bedtime snack, or within 30 minutes after a meal.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.
Serious side effects of potassium citrate include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth.Do not stop taking potassium citrate without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse.
Before taking this medicineYou should not use this medication if you are allergic to it, or if you have certain conditions. Be sure your doctor knows if you have:
high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia);
a urinary tract infection;
untreated or uncontrolled diabetes;
Addison's disease (an adrenal gland disorder);
a large tissue injury such as a severe burn;
a peptic ulcer in your stomach;
if you are severely dehydrated; or
if you are taking a 'potassium-sparing' diuretic (water pill) such as amiloride (Midamor, Moduretic), spironolactone (Aldactone, Aldactazide), triamterene (Dyrenium, Dyazide, Maxzide).
You should not take potassium citrate tablets if you have problems with your esophagus, stomach, or intestines that make it difficult for you to swallow or digest pills.
Before using potassium citrate, tell your doctor if you are allergic to any drugs, or if you have:
- kidney disease;
congestive heart failure, enlarged heart, or history of heart attack;
other heart disease or high blood pressure;
a blockage in your stomach or intestines; or
chronic diarrhea (such as ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease).
If you have any of these conditions, you may need a dose adjustment or special tests to safely take potassium citrate.FDA pregnancy category C. This medication may be harmful to an unborn baby. Tell your doctor if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant during treatment. It is not known whether potassium passes into breast milk or if it could harm a nursing baby. Do not use potassium citrate without telling your doctor if you are breast-feeding a baby.
How should I take potassium citrate?
Take potassium citrate exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Do not take it in larger amounts or for longer than recommended. Follow the directions on your prescription label.Do not crush, chew, break, or suck on an extended-release tablet. Swallow the pill whole. Breaking or crushing the pill may cause too much of the drug to be released at one time. Sucking on a potassium tablet can irritate your mouth or throat. Call your doctor if it feels like the tablet is getting stuck in your throat when you swallow it.
Measure the liquid medicine with a special dose-measuring spoon or cup, not a regular table spoon. If you do not have a dose-measuring device, ask your pharmacist for one.Liquid potassium should be mixed with at least 4 ounces (one-half cup) of cold water or fruit juice. Drink the mixture slowly, over 5 to 10 minutes in all. To make sure you get the entire dose, add a little more water to the same glass, swirl gently and drink right away.
Take potassium citrate with a meal or bedtime snack, or within 30 minutes after a meal.Your treatment may include a special diet. It is very important to follow the diet plan created for you by your doctor or nutrition counselor. You should become very familiar with the list of foods you should eat or avoid to help control your condition.
To be sure this medication is helping your condition, your blood may need to be tested often. Your heart rate may also be checked using an electrocardiograph or ECG (sometimes called an EKG) to measure electrical activity of the heart. This test will help your doctor determine how long to treat you with potassium. Do not miss any scheduled appointments.Do not stop taking potassium citrate without first talking to your doctor. If you stop taking potassium suddenly, your condition may become worse. Store potassium citrate at room temperature away from moisture and heat. Keep the medication in a closed container.
What happens if I miss a dose?
Take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then to take the medicine and skip the missed dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up the missed dose.
What happens if I overdose?Seek emergency medical attention if you think you have used too much of this medicine.
Overdose symptoms may include heavy feeling in your arms or legs, muscle weakness, limp feeling, slow or uneven heartbeat, chest pain, or feeling like you might pass out.
What should I avoid?Avoid lying down for at least 30 minutes after you take potassium citrate.
Avoid taking potassium supplements or using other products that contain potassium without first asking your doctor. Salt substitutes or low-salt dietary products often contain potassium. If you take certain products together you may accidentally get too much potassium. Read the label of any other medicine you are using to see if it contains potassium.
While taking this medication, avoid strenuous exercise if you are not in proper condition for it.
Potassium citrate side effectsGet emergency medical help if you have any of these signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop using potassium citrate and call your doctor at once if you have any of these serious side effects:
confusion, anxiety, feeling like you might pass out;
extreme thirst, increased urination;
muscle weakness or limp feeling;
numbness or tingly feeling in your hands or feet, or around your mouth;
severe stomach pain, ongoing diarrhea or vomiting;
black, bloody, or tarry stools; or
coughing up blood or vomit that looks like coffee grounds.
Less serious side effects may include:
mild nausea or upset stomach;
mild or occasional diarrhea; or
appearance of a potassium citrate tablet in your stool.
This is not a complete list of side effects and others may occur. Tell your doctor about any unusual or bothersome side effect. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088.
What other drugs will affect potassium citrate?
The following drugs can interact with potassium citrate. Tell your doctor if you are using any of these:
digoxin (digitalis, Lanoxin);
candesartan (Atacand), losartan (Cozaar, Hyzaar), valsartan (Diovan), or telmisartan (Micardis);
quinidine (Quinaglute, Quinidex, Quin-Release);
atropine (Donnatal, and others), benztropine (Cogentin), dimenhydrinate (Dramamine), methscopolamine (Pamine), or scopolamine (Transderm-Scop);
a bronchodilator such as ipratroprium (Atrovent) or tiotropium (Spiriva);
bladder or urinary medications such as darifenacin (Enablex), flavoxate (Urispas), oxybutynin (Ditropan, Oxytrol), tolterodine (Detrol), or solifenacin (Vesicare);
irritable bowel medications such as dicyclomine (Bentyl), hyoscyamine (Anaspaz, Cystospaz, Levsin, and others), or propantheline (Pro-Banthine);
an ACE inhibitor such as benazepril (Lotensin), captopril (Capoten), fosinopril (Monopril), enalapril (Vasotec), lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril), moexipril (Univasc), perindopril (Aceon), quinapril (Accupril), ramipril (Altace), or trandolapril (Mavik); or
any type of diuretic (water pill) such as bumetanide (Bumex), chlorothiazide (Diuril), chlorthalidone (Hygroton, Thalitone), ethacrynic acid (Edecrin), furosemide (Lasix), hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HydroDiuril, Hyzaar, Lopressor, Vasoretic, Zestoretic), indapamide (Lozol), metolazone (Mykrox, Zarxolyn), or torsemide (Demadex).
Potassium Atom Size
This list is not complete and there may be other drugs that can interact with potassium citrate. Tell your doctor about all your prescription and over-the-counter medications, vitamins, minerals, herbal products, and drugs prescribed by other doctors. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.Copyright 1996-2021 Cerner Multum, Inc. Version: 2.04.
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Potassium Atom Pic
Remember, keep this and all other medicines out of the reach of children, never share your medicines with others, and use potassium citrate only for the indication prescribed.
Potassium Atomic Mass
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