Nadhaswaram vst plugin free download. Sodium is a silvery-white metal belonging to Group 1 of the Periodic Table, which is the alkali metals.
- For the element of SODIUM, you already know that the atomic number tells you the number of electrons. That means there are 11 electrons in a sodium atom. Looking at the picture, you can see there are two electrons in shell one, eight in shell two, and only one in shell three. ► More about the history and places to find sodium.
- Sodium is the sixth most common element on Earth, and makes up 2.6% of the Earth’s crust. The most common compound is sodium chloride. This very soluble salt has been leached into the oceans over the lifetime of the planet, but many salt beds or ‘lakes’ are found where ancient seas have evaporated.
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Halogen, any of the six nonmetallic elements that constitute Group 17 (Group VIIa) of the periodic table. The halogen elements are fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), astatine (At), and tennessine (Ts). They were given the name halogen, from the Greek roots hal- (“salt”) and -gen (“to produce”), because they all produce sodiumsalts of similar properties, of which sodium chloride—table salt, or halite—is best known.
What are halogen elements?
The halogen elements are the six elements in Group 17 of the periodic table. Group 17 is the second column from the right in the periodic table and contains six elements: fluorine (F), chlorine (Cl), bromine (Br), iodine (I), astatine (As), and tennessine (Ts). Astatine and tennessine are radioactive elements with very short half-lives and thus do not occur naturally.
What are the major properties of the halogen elements?
Halogen elements are very reactive. They produce salts with sodium, of which table salt (sodium chloride, NaCl) is the most well-known. The halogen elements have seven valence electrons in their outermost electron shell. Therefore, when these elements can receive an electron from another atom, they form very stable compounds since their outermost shell is full.
What are some uses of halogen elements?
Chlorine is used to purify water. Chlorine also is part of salt, sodium chloride, which is one of the most widely used chemical compounds. Fluorine is used in fluorides, which are added to water supplies to prevent tooth decay. Iodine is used as an antiseptic.
Why are these elements called halogens?
When these elements react with sodium, they produce salts. The most well-known of these is sodium chloride, or common table salt (also called halite). The word halogen comes from the Greek roots hal- meaning “salt” and -gen meaning “to produce.”
Because of their great reactivity, the free halogen elements are not found in nature. In combined form, fluorine is the most abundant of the halogens in Earth’s crust. The percentages of the halogens in the igneous rocks of Earth’s crust are 0.06 fluorine, 0.031 chlorine, 0.00016 bromine, and 0.00003 iodine. Astatine and tennessine do not occur in nature, because they consist of only short-lived radioactive isotopes.
The halogen elements show great resemblances to one another in their general chemical behaviour and in the properties of their compounds with other elements. There is, however, a progressive change in properties from fluorine through chlorine, bromine, and iodine to astatine—the difference between two successive elements being most pronounced with fluorine and chlorine. Fluorine is the most reactive of the halogens and, in fact, of all elements, and it has certain other properties that set it apart from the other halogens.
Chlorine is the best known of the halogen elements. The free element is widely used as a water-purification agent, and it is employed in a number of chemical processes. Table salt, sodium chloride, of course, is one of the most familiar chemical compounds. Fluorides are known chiefly for their addition to public water supplies to prevent tooth decay, but organic fluorides are also used as refrigerants and lubricants. Iodine is most familiar as an antiseptic, and bromine is used chiefly to prepare bromine compounds that are used in flame retardants and as general pesticides. In the past ethylene dibromide was extensively used as an additive in leaded gasoline.
Probably the most important generalization that can be made about the halogen elements is that they are all oxidizing agents; i.e., they raise the oxidation state, or oxidation number, of other elements—a property that used to be equated with combination with oxygen but that is now interpreted in terms of transfer of electrons from one atom to another. In oxidizing another element, a halogen is itself reduced; i.e., the oxidation number 0 of the free element is reduced to −1. The halogens can combine with other elements to form compounds known as halides—namely, fluorides, chlorides, bromides, iodides, and astatides. Many of the halides may be considered to be salts of the respective hydrogen halides, which are colourless gases at room temperature and atmospheric pressure and (except for hydrogen fluoride) form strong acids in aqueous solution. Indeed, the general term salt is derived from rock salt, or table salt (sodium chloride). The tendency of the halogen elements to form saltlike (i.e., highly ionic) compounds increases in the following order: astatine < iodine < bromine < chlorine < fluorine. Fluorides are usually more stable than the corresponding chlorides, bromides, or iodides. (Often astatine is omitted from general discussions of the halogens because less is known about it than about the other elements.)
The oxidizing strength of the halogens increases in the same order—i.e., from astatine to fluorine. Therefore, of the halogen elements, elemental fluorine is prepared with the greatest difficulty and iodine with the least. As a class, the halogen elements are nonmetals, but astatine shows certain properties resembling those of the metals.
The chemical behaviour of the halogen elements can be discussed most conveniently in terms of their position in the periodic table of the elements. In the periodic table the halogens make up Group 17 (according to the numbering system adopted by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry), the group immediately preceding the noble gases. The halogen atoms carry seven valence electrons in their outermost electron shell. These seven outermost electrons are in two different kinds of orbitals, designated s (with two electrons) and p (with five). Potentially, a halogen atom could hold one more electron (in a p orbital), which would give the resulting halide ion the same arrangement (configuration) as that of the noble gas next to it in the periodic table. These electron configurations are exceptionally stable. This pronounced tendency of the halogens to acquire an additional electron renders them strong oxidizers.
At room temperature and atmospheric pressure the halogen elements in their free states exist as diatomic molecules. In molecular fluorine (F2) the atoms are held together by a bond made from the union of a p orbital from each atom, with such a bond being classed as a sigma bond. It should be mentioned that the dissociation energy for fluorine (the energy necessary to break the F―F bond) is over 30 percent smaller than that of chlorine but is similar to that of iodine (I2). The weakness of the F―F single bond compared with chlorine can be ascribed to the small size of fluorine resulting in a decreased overlap of bonding orbitals and an increased repulsion of the nonbonding orbitals. In iodine, however, the p orbitals are more diffuse, which means the bond becomes weaker than in chlorine or bromine.
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Fun Facts Sodium
Also to know is, what is a neutral atom?
An atom that has equal number of protons and electrons is called a neutral atom. A neutral Sodium atom has atomic # 11, which means , it has 11 protons and since it is neutral, it also has 11 electrons.
Secondly, how many protons neutrons and electrons are in a neutral atom of sodium? The element sodium has 12 neutrons, 11 electrons and 11 protons. The number of electrons and protons come from the element's atomic number, which is same 11. The number of neutrons can be found by subtraction of the atomic number from sodium's atomic mass of twenty three.
In this way, why is sodium electrically neutral?
Neutral Sodium Atom
Now since the charged are always added integrally, the net charged on an atom comes out to be 0 and the atom is therefore electrically neutral. Now, a sodium atom becomes an in when it donates one of its electrons to complete its octet. The charge of this one extra protons is what gives the sodium ion its +1 charge…
How many valence electrons are in a neutral atom of sodium?
Sodium Atomic Symbol